• Issues to be taken into consideration for MasterBatch selection When the raw materials used are changed, this causes color deviation, especially in light colors.
  • The raw material used should be compatible with the masterbatch carrier.
  • The maximum value should be specified for the operating temperatures of the machinery.
  • Information of hot feeder usage in the production line must be specified.
  • If the dimensions of the final product vary, the operations should be carried out according to the largest piece.
  • If the final product comprises too many details, this should be specified.
  • Masterbatch usage ratio must be the recommended ratio. Otherwise, tone differences and mantling problems might emerge.
  • When the production method is changed, the same paint might appear in different tones.
  • Film thickness affects the opacity and color.
  • If the final product shall be subjected to sunlight, pigments with high light fastness should be used.
  • It should be specified whether food and RoHS compliance is required or not.
  • The type of light under which the product shall be controlled should not vary.
  • Shrinkage information should be specified.
  • Migration value should be specified.
  • When the existing parameters in masterbatch operation change, a trial production for the other product must be made before usage.
  • Dosing being performed volumetrically or gravimetrically alters the power of the color. Unless specified otherwise, our operations are carried out according to the gravimetric production method.
  • If a magnet is used in the production line, this information must be given.
  • If there are any preexisting problems regarding dispensing, these should be specified.
  • Masterbatch does not only colorize your products, it also adds value to them. Products in the right colors provide identification, attraction and trust, as well as arousing interest and attracting attention.
  • It is not easy to dispense the pigments or ingredients which are in powder form homogeneously into the plastic which is in granule form and process them.
  • Additionally, catching the continuity of color tones other than the main colors consisting of a single pigment requires special equipment and systems.
  • You would not run into problems such as your facility being polluted by fluttering powder paint particles, the color of the other products being ruined by fluttering paint powder, all your equipment and staff being painted, color fluctuations etc. which are natural consequences of working with pigments.
  • Because pigment mixture ratios directly affect the color and this is a sensitive process, even a formula error of 0,1 may not be realized in the controls and cause your production work with the wrong colors for hours and sometimes give rise to irremediable damages.
  • Active agent dispensing in this stage affects the quality of Masterbatch. Excellent filter test values obtained support you also in this regard.
  • Carrier plastic and other ingredients dispense the powder agent into the main plastic homogeneously while you are processing and shaping the plastic.
  • It helps you focus on your shaping and similar quality priorities rather than the mixture problems of paint and plastic in your production.
  • Fillings used especially in PVC production change the tone of the color.
  • A change cable production methods affect the color of the paint.
  • The machines not being cleaned well cause color raveling and traces. The machines stopping and restarting might cause contact with materials remaining on the area outside the flow path, and this emerges as a trace problem on the product. If suspected of dirty machinery, a few prints should be taken with only the raw material and the flow path should be checked on every stage for cleanness.
  • When the machines are stopped for more than 10 minutes, the first prints should be checked upon restart. Burning might occur if the material is subjected to heat for a long time.
  • In case of any change of raw material and micron used especially for film production, a trial production must be performed.
  • When working in temperatures lower than the melting point of the carrier used, melting will not take place in the final product.
  • Raw materials absorbing moisture must be deployed before production.

How to identify plastic? Industrialists and technical staff working in production may need to know which plastic is used in a piece. This is important for knowing both the cost of the piece and the characteristics of the material.

As a matter of fact, identifying plastics is pretty hard. In practice, there are many different types of plastic that may be used. Various ingredients might have been added in order to alter the characteristics of these plastics. In order to obtain the desired characteristics, plastics may have been used in the form of alloys or mixtures.

In spite of all these, it might be possible to determine which polymer is used in the production of a plastic piece through some simple tests. These tests should only be used as preliminary information and the exact type of the material should be determined in result of advanced lab tests.

CAUTION! Wrong usage of these tests may be dangerous. Some vapors may be very dangerous. Extreme care should be given while applying these tests. Extreme care should be given especially in burning and vapor smelling tests. The burning piece should be held 20-30 cm away from the nose and should be inhaled just enough to get the smell. Vapor should not be inhaled deeply and directly. Attention should be paid to dripping polymer, it is caustic and very hot.

The most simple tests for identifying plastics;
  • Inspecting the sample with the eyes
  • Inspecting its structure by touching
  • Sculpting pieces from the sample
  • Seeing whether it floats on water or not
  • Checking its flame and smell after burning

These tests may roughly give an idea about the polymer.
NOTE: These tests are never sufficient for definite identification. Some ingredients (delaying burning/putting out the flame etc.) may alter the known structure of the product.
  • Inspecting the sample with the eyes;
    For example, the color of the plastic gives you certain information. For example, the colors of certain polymers are limited, especially in Thermosets. Some have more bright colors, such as polypropylene. Some are both more bright and flat like glass, such as acrylics.
  • Inspecting its structure by touching;
    You can feel that the touch of some plastics are different. For example, polyolefins (polyethylene, polypropylene) give a different feeling when touched. If there is any fiberglass or similar ingredients in the material, these ingredients manifest themselves.
  • Sculpting pieces from the sample;
    • Sculpting pieces from the sample A;
      With this test, we can tell a lot about the plastic we are trying to identify. Here we may run into two different situations.
      a) Bits and pieces fall out in dust form (most probably this is a thermoset). You burn the edge of the sample with a lighter or match and you smell (if it burns but when you pull away the match or lighter it stops burning; if it lets out an odor of phenol (smells similar to tar) the sample is generally brown or black. Phenol Formaldehyde Resin (Bakelite)). If it lets out a sharp and bitter odor and the sample is in light colors; Phenol Formaldehyde based Epoxy Resin. If it burns and lets out an odor of fish, the sample is in general bright colored or white. You apply the test of scratching with your fingernails. If it is scratched with fingernails: Urea Formaldehyde Resin; If it not scratched with fingernails: Melamine; Characteristic polystyrene odor - Polystyrene; Characteristic polystyrene odor + a bitter odor - Styrene Acrylonitrile; Characteristic polystyrene odor + rubber odor - Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene
    • You cut a straight film from the sample. Generally this is thermoplastic. In order to make sure, you heat a piece of wire with a match and touch it to the plastic. If there is any melting or softening at the point of contact, it is thermoplastic. Otherwise, it is thermoset.
    • Throwing to the ground test. You let the sample fall to a hard surface. If there is a metallic sound while falling, most probably this is a styrene-based polymer. If there is no metallic sound, this is not a styrene-based polymer (if it is a foamed polystyrene a metallic sound may not be heard.
  • Floating Test;
    A) If the sample floats on water most probably it is polyolefin (you apply the scratching test and burning test). If the surface is bright, it is not scratched, it burns and when it burns it lets a paraffin odor - Polypropylene. If the surface is bright, it is lightly scratched, it burns and drips like a candle - Polyethylene (High density). If the surface is not very bright, it is easily scratched, it burns and when it burns it lets a paraffin odor - Polyethylene (Low density).
    B) If the sample does not float on water - most probably it is not polyolefin.
  • Flame Test;
    Burn the edge of the sample with a match;

    *It burns and when the match or lighter is pulled away it continues to burn with a bright flame. There is a fruity odor in its vapor - Acrylic (most probably PMMA); There is a paper odor in its vapor - Cellulose Acetate or Cellulose Propionate. There is a bad oil odor in its vapor - Cellulose Acetate Butyrate

    *It burns hardly and when the match or lighter is pulled away it stops burning (pay attention to the color of the flame and how hard it burns). If the sample burns with a green flame, there is a bitter and sour odor, the material is soft and elastic - Soft PVC; There is a bitter and sour odor, the material is rigid and bright - Hard PVC

    The sample burns with a yellow flame, smells of formaldehyde - Polyacetal; No specific odor, feels like a slippery surface. Press a cold metal to the hot surface of the sample. If the material becomes stringy - Polyamide (Nylon); There is no flame, the sample changes to a cellular form, decomposes - Polycarbonate. Does not burn - PTFE

Polymers are materials with high molecular weight formed in result of simple molecules names as monomers bonded together through chemical bonds. Polymeric materials used in the industry are classified into three main classes based on their physical and mechanical characteristics:

  • 1. Plastics
  • 2. Rubbers
  • 3. Fibers

Polymeric materials have a very wide area of utilization in our day. PVC, nylon and teflon are the simplest examples of polymeric materials. All plastic and rubber materials are polymer-based. Characteristics providing polymers being used widely:

  • 1. They are light in weight.
  • 2. They can be designed and shaped easily.
  • 3. They are durable against chemical effects.
  • 4. They are durable against atmospheric conditions.
  • 5. Their mechanical durability is high.
  • 6. They are nonconductive, they do not conduct electricity, heat or sound.
  • 7. They are hygienic.
  • 8. Their characteristics may be altered upon request.
  • 9. Optical Characteristics (Transparency, Opacity).
  • 10. They are cost efficient (Raw Material and Production)

What are thermoset polymers and thermoplastics?

To put it simply, thermoset polymers are polymers which permanently become rigid over a critical temperature and do not soften when heated again. The difference between thermoset polymers and thermoplastics is that, thermoset polymers once shaped, cannot be melted again and reshaped; while thermoplastics may melt or soften when heated and be reshaped again and again (of course until the polymer starts to disintegrate). Thermosets are usually rigid materials.